How to Clean Your Denture/Partial Denture

LindsayW

Lindsay Olsen, RDH

How to Clean Your Denture/Partial Denture 

Rinse your dentures before brushing to remove any loose food or debris.

Use a soft bristle toothbrush and a non-abrasive cleanser to gently brush all the surfaces of the dentures so they don’t get scratched.

When brushing, clean your mouth thoroughly—including your gums, cheeks, roof of your mouth and tongue to remove any plaque. This can help reduce the risk of oral irritation and bad breath.

When you’re not wearing your dentures, put them in a safe place covered in water to keep them from warping.

Do not sleep with your dentures. Your tissues need to breath overnight. If you do not take out your dentures at night, you are at risk of developing oral fungal infections.

Occasionally, denture wearers may use adhesives. Adhesives come in many forms: creams, powders, pads/wafers, strips or liquids. If you use one of these products, read the instructions, and use them exactly as directed. Your dentist can recommend appropriate cleansers and adhesives; look for products with the ADA Seal of Acceptance. Products with the ADA Seal have been evaluated for safety and effectiveness.

Visit your dentist once every 6 months for a complimentary oral cancer screening, and to have the fit of your denture evaluated.

Want to learn more? Visit us at

http://www.shalimarfamilydentistry.com

http://www.northstapleydentalcare.com

http://www.alamedadentalaz.com

http://www.dentistingilbert.com

Electric Toothbrushes, Are They Worth it?

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Wendy Parker, RDH

Electric Toothbrushes, Are They Worth it?

            I was never a believer of electric toothbrushes until I graduated hygiene school and I was given one for free.  Yes, I know, but I figured that since I was given one, I would at least give it a try and see what all the fuss was about.  For years I would go between my manual toothbrush and my electric one, leaving the electric one home when I traveled.  However, now, I have realized that I don’t leave home without it!  At first, I thought I am a pretty good at brushing and don’t really need it, but found that mid-afternoon, my teeth would get the fuzzy feeling on them.  When I totally committed and threw away my manual toothbrush, I found that no longer did I get the fuzzies on my teeth!  Oh man, I was so excited!

So, the question remains…is it worth it?  YES!  And here’s the great thing about it….there is a 30 day money back guarantee from Oral-B and Sonicare that if you don’t like the product, you take it back and get your money back!  These are the top two selling brands for electric toothbrushes and they are awesome!  Both companies will tell you that their product is superior but when it comes down to it, it is a personal preference.  So next time you’re in the dental isle, take a minute and compare them side by side and see which one looks more appealing to you.  The average price is about $90-$120 dollars. (Please also asked us, when you come in to the office, we sell electric toothbrushes here for a great price!)  Yes, it seems a lot for a toothbrush, but you will be amazed (and so will we) with the change in your oral health!   So try one out and let’s keep on smiling!

Want to learn more? Visit us at

http://www.shalimarfamilydentistry.com

http://www.northstapleydentalcare.com

http://www.alamedadentalaz.com

http://www.dentistingilbert.com

Flossing: More Than Just a Guilt Trip

AriannaM

Arianna Ritchey, RDH

Flossing: More Than Just a Guilt Trip

As a part of a regular preventive or periodontal maintenance visit with your dental hygienist, the topic of flossing usually comes up.  Most people have at least heard of flossing, and while some people floss regularly, most patients I see report flossing less than the ADA recommended once per day.  More often, people fall into the categories of flossing “once in a while” or “once in a blue moon.”  While some people are embarrassed to admit this to their dental hygienist, the condition and health of your gums reveal a lot about your oral hygiene practices at home without you saying a word.  (We can also read minds…just kidding.)

So, if most people have heard about flossing, and are reminded of it semi-annually by their dental hygienist, what is preventing them from actually cleaning between their teeth on a regular basis?

Maybe they don’t realize the impact that flossing has on the health of their gums and prevention of early tooth loss.  Maybe it’s difficult for them to manipulate string floss (it’s harder than it looks).  Maybe they are super busy (who isn’t?) and can’t find time to track down some floss and use it between their teeth.  Maybe they ran out of the sample-size floss their hygienist gave them a their last visit.  Maybe it hurts when they floss because their gums are inflamed, so they avoid the pain.  Maybe they are really committed and diligent for the first while, and then life gets in the way and they fall out of the habit.  All of these are totally understandable reasons, and I’ve been there.  (Hygienists are human, too!)

The good news is, your dental hygienist is interested in helping you to keep your mouth and gums healthy, and offers a judgment-free-zone to learn how to properly perform oral hygiene techniques, like flossing, and to help you come up with some ways to integrate flossing into your daily routine.  (Floss in the shower, floss while watching the intro to your show on Netflix, floss while on Facebook or scrolling through Pinterest, floss while at a red light on your commute, etc.)

The other awesome thing your dental hygienist does for you, is giving you a clean slate to work with!  When your dental hygienist cleans your teeth by removing the plaque and calculus (calcified plaque) from your teeth, they are removing the bacteria that are causing the inflammation, pain, and bleeding in your gums.  (Hooray!)  Once these irritations are removed, the gums have a chance to heal, and by properly cleaning your teeth at home (brushing and flossing), you can keep them healthy.  When the gums are healthy, they don’t hurt, they don’t bleed, they are easier to floss, and you have a faster, easier dental hygiene appointments. (Even when your hygienist is gentle, nobody enjoys being in that chair.)

If you’re still reading, check out this video my former classmates and I produced that demonstrates proper flossing technique and briefly explains why flossing is important.  It’s a little cheesy, but definitely educational.  Make sure your sound is on, there’s some great instruction and music.  

After watching this video and practicing at home, if you’re still having difficulty with string floss, try some other interdental cleaners!  Here’s a great article that talks about lots of interdental cleaners and how to use them (scroll about halfway down).  

Remember, the best interdental cleaning tool is the one that you actually use consistently; if string floss just isn’t your thing, talk to your hygienist at your next visit, and we’ll be happy to give you some samples to try.  Happy flossing!

Want to learn more? Visit us at

http://www.shalimarfamilydentistry.com

http://www.northstapleydentalcare.com

http://www.alamedadentalaz.com

http://www.dentistingilbert.com

Sources:

https://dentistrydonedifferently.com/2015/03/22/what-is-a-periodontal-maintenance/

http://www.ada.org/en/science-research/ada-seal-of-acceptance/product-category-information/floss-and-other-interdental-cleaners

https://dentistrydonedifferently.com/2013/10/14/tooth-brushes/

youtube.com/watch

https://dentistrydonedifferently.com/2014/05/19/flossing-do-i-have-to/

Oral Cancer Awareness

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Becky Larson, RDH

Oral Cancer Awareness

It’s April again!  Which means Oral Cancer Awareness month.  I can’t even begin to tell you how critical it is to receive regular oral cancer screenings.  Your dentist and/or dental hygienist should perform a basic screening at your six month check-ups.  We also recommend having a more in depth oral cancer screening (such as the Velscope, Oral ID, or Identafi) annually.  These more in depth screenings use florescent or ultra violet lights that can detect signs of oral cancer much earlier.  The earlier cancer is caught, the sooner treatment can begin and the better the prognosis.

Oral cancer is any abnormal growth of cells in the oral cavity (mouth).  Abnormal cell growth can be benign (no cause for concern) or malignant (can be life-threatening).  The oral cavity consists of the lips, cheek lining, salivary glands, hard and soft palates, uvula, tongue, floor of the mouth (underneath the tongue), gums, and tonsils.  The tongue and the floor of the mouth are the most common areas for oral cancer to occur.  However, the cancer can spread to other areas of the oral cavity and/or other areas of the body.

Oral cancer can manifest itself in many ways including swellings, lumps or bumps, numbness, abnormal bleeding, white patches, red patches, speckled patch, sores that do not heal, sore throat, pain when chewing/speaking/etc., changes in voice, ear pain, and dramatic weight loss.  If you are experiencing any of these symptoms please visit your dentist or primary care physician.

Risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use, alcohol use, sun exposure, having HPV (Human papillomavirus), and a history of having oral cancer previously.  Tobacco use is the reason for most oral cancers, especially in those individuals who have used tobacco for lengthy amounts of time.  The risk increases when tobacco users become heavy alcohol drinkers.  Three out of every four oral cancers occur in people who use alcohol, tobacco, or both.  The Human papillomavirus is mainly linked to oropharyngeal cancers.  Limiting sun exposure and the use of sun screen and lip balm can help reduce the risk.  Men are twice as likely to develop oral cancer than women.  It is also important to note that more than 25% of oral cancers are found in individuals with no risk factors.

Everyone is at risk!  Make sure to visit your dentist and dental hygienist for regular oral cancer screenings.

Want to learn more? Visit us at

http://www.shalimarfamilydentistry.com

http://www.northstapleydentalcare.com

http://www.alamedadentalaz.com

http://www.dentistingilbert.com

Sources:

http://www.medicinenet.com/oral_cancer/article.htm

http://www.webmd.com/oral-health/guide/oral-cancer

http://www.cdc.gov/std/hpv/STDFact-HPVandOropharyngealCancer.htm

 

Tips for Toddlers

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Tips for Toddlers

Have you ever tried to brush the little one’s teeth and been so frustrated you just give up?!?  I have!  With 4 children of my own, I can tell you first hand that it’s not the easiest task to accomplish and each child is so different and will respond just a little differently.  So if one of these techniques don’t work for you, just try, try again.

Tip #1: For the babies who are teething or whose teeth are just breaking through, chewing on a toothbrush is an excellent idea!  No toothpaste needed, just the brush and lots of saliva!  

Tip #2:For the little ones, just when they’re starting to get their teeth – You sit on the floor, criss-cross apple sauce, and lay their head in your lap with their legs facing away from you.  (It will look like they’re laying in a dental chair, without the chair.)  Then have them extend their chip up towards you as you lightly brush their teeth in circular motions, just doing the best you can.  At first, you may be only able to brush for a few seconds, but after a while, they’ll get more used to it (and you, too) and before you know it, you’re brushing morning and night!  There are finger brushes that you can try as well if they don’t like the toothbrush.

Tip #3: Use a timer.  Any timer will do, just make sure that it stays in the bathroom where they’ll see it on the counter and use it.  It can be a one minute timer, one minute for the top and then flip it and do it again for the bottom teeth.  That way they are counting down to when they’re finished.

Tip #4: SING!  Sometimes I sing so much that my children tell me to stop, however, it truly works.  Find a song they like to sing or a number they like to count up to, and do it while you are brushing their teeth!  Some songs that worked well for my littles were “Itsy Bisty Spider,” sung twice, The ABC song, Wheels on the Bus, or London Bridges.  Whatever the song, decide how to break it up into two sections, brush the bottom teeth first, pause for a second to let them swallow and then finish on the top.  They think it’s fun and brushing time will go quickly and end up being fun instead of a drag.

Most importantly…..BE PATIENT!  It will come and eventually they will brush their teeth on their own.  It just takes time and lots of patience.  Don’t let this little thing become a battle early in their little lives.  If you need extra tips or help, don’t be afraid to ask your hygienist on your next visit in to see us!  Happy Brushing!
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Wendy Parker, R.D.H. and also known as M.O.M.

Tips for Flossing and Maintaining Your Oral Health While in Braces

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Amanda Orvis, RDH

Tips for Flossing and Maintaining Your Oral Health While in Braces

Flossing may seem like it is almost impossible when you are in braces. It can even seem intimidating. It is a fact that it takes longer to floss your teeth if you have traditional wired braces. Thankfully there are tools that can help take some of the hassle out of flossing around braces. Please read below for some suggestions.

Floss Threaders

These threaders are a great tool to help achieve getting your floss behind your wire and between your teeth. Simply grab a normal piece of floss and one threader. Thread the floss through the loop hole in the threader, the same way you would thread a needle. After you have threaded the floss threader, simply guide the threader behind your orthodontic wire and floss between your teeth. See picture below.

 

Super Floss

Super floss is a pre-threaded flosser. It consists of three parts. Part one is the stiffened needle-like end. Part two is the spongy floss. Part three is the regular floss. This one piece threaded floss is great for maneuvering around those orthodontic wires. The great thing about super floss is that you do not have to thread the floss at all; it is already done for you! The spongy part of the floss is great for those wider spaces between your teeth that you get while your teeth are moving and shifting while you are in braces. The traditional end of the floss is great for those tighter spaces. See picture below.

 

Proxabrushes

These small brushes are great for cleaning between the teeth and behind your orthodontic wires. Proxabrushes help to remove the plaque in those hard to reach areas which are commonly missed. To use these brushes, you simply guide the brush behind the wire and move the brush up and down cleaning any remaining plaque on the teeth after brushing.

 

Waterpik

Waterpiks, also known as water flossers, are great to use around orthodontic brackets and wires. They are easy and effective. You simply point the water flosser between your teeth along the gumline and let the water spray between the teeth. Water flossers help to remove plaque and food debris in those hard to reach areas.

 

*If you would like a demonstration on any of these products please ask your dentist or dental hygienist at your next dental visit.

Want to learn more? Visit us at

http://www.shalimarfamilydentistry.com

http://www.northstapleydentalcare.com

http://www.alamedadentalaz.com

http://www.dentistingilbert.com

Sources:

http://oralb.com/en-us/products/super-floss

http://www.gumbrand.com/between-teeth-cleaning/floss-threaders/gum-eez-thru-floss-threaders-840a.html

http://www.gumbrand.com/between-teeth-cleaning/interdental-brushes/gum-go-betweens-proxabrush-cleaners-tight-872rn.html

https://www.waterpik.com/oral-health/how-to-floss/

What is a filling?

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Becky Larson, RDH

What is a filling?

As a dental hygienist, I find that more often than not, my patients are confused.  Dental professionals tend to speak a “different language” and it can be very hard to understand.  A dental filling is a very common procedure that is performed at the dental office.  This post will go over what a dental filling is.

Unfortunately, teeth are prone to decay.  When decay occurs on one or more surfaces of a tooth, a hole or cavity forms.  A dental filling is the standard treatment used to fix a tooth with one or more areas of small decay.  By placing a filling, a dentist is able to restore a tooth back to its normal function and shape.  When a dentist gives you a filling, he or she first removes the decayed tooth material with a dental drill, cleans the affected area, and then fills the cleaned out cavity with a filling material.

A filling also helps to prevent future decay because it closes off spaces where bacteria may enter.  Materials used for fillings include gold, porcelain, composite resin (tooth-colored fillings), and amalgam (an alloy of mercury, silver, copper, tin and sometimes zinc).

It is important to follow your dentist’s recommendations for placing fillings.  When decay is left untreated it can cause the tooth to fracture, cause an abscess or infection, and/or destroy the inside or pulp of the tooth. As a result, more extensive treatment such as a crown, root canal, and/or extraction may be needed.

Want to learn more? Visit us at

http://www.shalimarfamilydentistry.com

http://www.northstapleydentalcare.com

http://www.alamedadentalaz.com

http://www.dentistingilbert.com

Sources:

http://www.colgate.com/en/us/oc/oral-health/procedures/fillings/article/what-is-a-filling

https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001055.htm

Is Your Toothbrush Making you Sick?

Sharma RDH

Sharma Mulqueen RDH

Is Your Toothbrush Making you Sick?

Everyone’s focusing on the hand washing when they’re sick, with good reason. But how about washing your toothbrush? Washing your hands can reduce the risk of illness since we put our hands in our mouths, our eyes, our ears. So why is there no focus on cleaning the toothbrush during illness when we stick it directly into our mouths? What can we do to prevent the germs from passing on?

Reintroducing that toothbrush back into your mouth could be the worst thing you could be doing for your health on a daily basis.

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That doesn’t mean don’t brush.

Many studies clearly state that all of the presently available toothbrushes have the ability to be infected by a wide range of microorganisms, including viruses which can cause the common cold to even herpes. Pneumonia-causing bacteria also are found on a toothbrush.

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What can you do?

According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), a simple regimen for toothbrush care is sufficient to remove most microorganisms from your toothbrush and limit the spread of disease. Here are some common-sense steps you can take:

  • Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and warm water before and after brushing or flossing.
  • After brushing, rinse your toothbrush with warm water and store it upright to air-dry.
  • Don’t cover your toothbrush or place it in a closed container until it is completely dry. A moist environment can foster bacterial growth.
  • Use a completely dry toothbrush. Everyone should have two toothbrushes to give ample time (24 hours) for it to dry out in between uses.
  • Don’t share a toothbrush with anyone. Also, don’t store toothbrushes in a way that might cause them to touch and spread germs.
  • Replace your toothbrush every three or four months. Dentists recommend this practice not as prevention against contamination, but because toothbrushes wear out and become less effective at cleaning teeth.
  • Always replace your toothbrush after a cold or other illness to prevent contamination.
  • If you or someone else in your family is sick, that person should use a different tube of toothpaste (travel size, for example), to prevent spreading germs to other toothbrushes.
  • The toothbrush should be viewed as a necessary evil as well as a bio hazard. Make sure it is clean before using it!

In summary, do not reuse your floss, keep your toothbrush clean, and replace during and after illness. Store it outside the bathroom and use it several times per day. Brush twice a day for two minutes and floss daily and see your dentist every six months for check ups!

Want to learn more? Visit us at

http://www.shalimarfamilydentistry.com

http://www.northstapleydentalcare.com

http://www.alamedadentalaz.com

http://www.dentistingilbert.com

Sources:

https://www.deltadentalins.com/oral_health/toothbrush.html

http://guidetodentistry.com

http://www.cdc.gov/oralhealth/infectioncontrol

Keeping Your Teeth For a Lifetime

KarenK

Karen Kelley RDH

Keeping Your Teeth For a Lifetime

Our dental practice has more over 50 year olds than under 50.  As aging adults, we need to be aware of certain things that can keep us from retaining our teeth our entire lives.

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Judith Ann Jones, DDS, a spokesman on elder care for the American Dental Association and director of The Center for Clinical Research at the Boston University Goldman School of Dental Medicine spoke about 5 things that are especially important to the over 50 crowd.

Tooth Decay:  Contrary to what many people believe, adults keep getting cavities!  I’m always surprised when people are stunned to learn they have a cavity as an adult.  Areas of the teeth that have never had a cavity can decay, but  areas  where we see more problems are where an old filling is leaking and at the base of an older crown.  The best prevention is brushing well each day along the gumline.  An electric toothbrush is very helpful in accomplishing this as well as the use of fluoride.  An over the counter fluoride rinse nightly is great and in our office we have special prescription strength fluoride that is wonderful for cavity prevention as well as help with sensitivity.
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Dry Mouth:  Keeping Your Teeth For a Lifetime We see so many people with this problem.  “Saliva protects our teeth.  The calcium and phosphate present in saliva prevent demineralization of your teeth”, Jones says.  Many drugs cause dry mouth as well as some diseases and as we get older, we are on more medications thus we see this commonly in older adults.  This is a difficult one to deal with for those affected.  The best thing is to drink lots of water, use saliva substitute and try xylitol products.  Also, if you smoke, stop, it just makes your mouth drier.

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Gum Disease:  If your gums are swollen, red, or bleed easily, you have gum disease.  If left untreated, gum disease (gingivitis) will become more serious and will cause deterioration of the bone that holds the teeth, we call this periodontitis.   If this condition continues without treatment, it can cause the loss of the teeth.  The best way to prevent gum disease is to clean your teeth well each day with brushing, flossing, and use of interdental cleaners like soft picks or go betweens. And of course, seeing your friendly dental hygienist as often as recommended.  We can remove the mineralized bacteria from your teeth that you can’t remove with brushing.

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Tooth Crowding:  “As you age, your teeth shift”, according to Lee W. Graber, D.D.S., M.S, Ph.D., Past President of the American Association of Orthodontists. And “that can be problematic, not because you’ll look different, but because it can make your teeth more difficult to clean, leading to more decay.  It’s also of concern because misaligned teeth can lead to teeth erosion and damage to the supporting tissue and bone”, Graber says.   “Add to that the tendency of older adults to have periodontal disease, and you could end up losing your teeth even faster.”   If your teeth have really shifted, and you find you are having a difficult time keeping your teeth clean and food keeps getting caught in certain areas, ask our doctors about orthodontics.  We offer Invisalign to our patients and we’ve had patients in their later years choose to straighten their teeth.  I just finished with my invisalign treatment.  I had braces when I was a teenager but my teeth had shifted and I was experiencing these problems I just mentioned.  I decided to do Invisalign.  It’s easy to do and my teeth are so much straighter.   They are now in the correct alignment and my teeth and gums will be healthier.   If you choose not to do orthodontics, more frequently exams and cleanings may be necessary.

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Oral Cancer:  According to The Oral Cancer Foundation, more than 43,000 Americans will be diagnosed with oral cancers this year, and more than 8,000 will die from it.  “Oral cancer incidence definitely increases as you get older”, Jones says, and “is very often linked to smoking and heavy alcohol use.”   Jones also said, “Only about half of people who develop oral cancer survive the disease.”   If discovered early, there is an 80 percent chance of surviving for five years.  When we do your periodic exams when you come in for your cleaning, you will be checked for oral cancer.  We also offer Velscope, Identafi, or Oral ID technologies to help in finding oral cancer earlier.

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Keep brushing, flossing and smiling!  We want to help you keep your teeth healthy your entire lives!

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Want to learn more? Visit us at

http://www.shalimarfamilydentistry.com

http://www.northstapleydentalcare.com

http://www.alamedadentalaz.com

http://www.dentistingilbert.com

Sources:

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/09/28/common-dental-problems-_n_5844434.html

https://aga.grandparents.com/

Black Line Stain

AriannaM

Arianna Ritchey, RDH

BLACK LINE STAIN

During the regular prophylaxis cleaning for a recent patient, she inquired as to the black stain on her teeth.  She had excellent brushing and  flossing habits, saw us every six months for her professional cleanings, and has only one filling on her permanent teeth.  This patient does not participate in any behaviours that normally result in staining; she does not drink coffee, tea, wine, and she does not use any tobacco products.  She was also concerned, because this same type of stain is also present on her infant’s teeth, who is strictly breastfed.  So, where was this stain coming from?!

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It was explained to this patient that the stain she was experiencing was most likely a type of stain called “Black Line Stain,” or sometimes simply “Black Stain”.  Black Line Stain is more common in women than men, and can occur in patients with excellent oral hygiene.  It appears as a thin black line, which is firmly attached to the tooth surface, and most commonly near the gumline of the facial and lingual surfaces of a tooth.  This type of stain is associated with a low incidence of cavities in children and adults, and is caused by a type of Gram-positive bacteria that produces a certain colour, or chroma, which makes it identifiable. It is possible that this patient’s child has the same type of Gram-positive chromogenic bacteria on his teeth, creating the same type of Black Line Stain.  This is especially likely if the child has good oral hygiene and a low incidence of cavities.

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This non-metallic type of stain is absorbed onto the tooth surface deposits, such as tartar, plaque, or even the acquired pellicle.  The acquired pellicle is a thin film made up of proteins in our saliva, that forms almost instantly after a tooth is cleaned.  Because this type of bacteria is able to attach to the acquired pellicle,  this condition is not related to oral cleanliness or the presence of periodontal disease.

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To prevent this stain from building up as quickly, patients can use a toothbrush to effectively clean the teeth twice a day, while using a toothpaste that helps to prevent staining.  Powered toothbrushes can often clean the teeth most effectively without causing trauma to the gums.  Once the stain has settled onto the teeth,  the most effective way to remove this Black Line Stain is by a professional cleaning with a dental hygienist.  The hygienist may professionally remove the stain with an ultrasonic scaler, coronal polishing using an abrasive prophy paste, or by using an air-jet polisher with an abrasive powder.

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The only real downside to removing the Black Line Stain from the teeth, is that repeated stain removal using an abrasive paste or powder removes micro-millimeters of enamel from the tooth surface.  The top layer of the teeth which is partially removed during polishing, is the most fluoride-rich part of the tooth, so if frequent polishing is utilized to remove Black Line Stain, it is advisable to have a professional fluoride treatment administered after the polishing to replenish the depleted fluoride from the teeth.  Fluoride is available in a few different forms, the most effective of which are a fluoride varnish or a fluoride foam.

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There are some other types of dark stain that are caused by other sources, including dietary components, beverages, tobacco, mouthrinses and other medicaments. These types of stain have a different source than Black Line Stain, but are removed in a very similar fashion.  If you have any questions or further concerns about staining on your teeth, feel free to ask your dental hygienist!

 

 

Want to learn more? Visit us at

http://www.shalimarfamilydentistry.com

http://www.northstapleydentalcare.com

http://www.alamedadentalaz.com

http://www.dentistingilbert.com

Sources:

http://jairjp.com/JANUARY%202013/02%20SRUTHY%20PRATHAP.pdf

http://www.sammyboy.com/showthread.php?154192-Black-stain-in-teeth-by-chromogenic-bacteria

http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/black+line+dental+stain

http://www.carolinasdentist.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/toothpaste.jpg

http://www.youngdental.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/dlishezpak4.jpg

http://www.sanclementeperiodontist.com/portals/165/images/fluoride.jpeg